My debt to three people is enormous. With the fearless, loving spirit of their mother, Mary’s children, Heaton Vorse and Joel O’Brien, and daughter-in-law Jill O’Brien, opened their homes, hearts, memories and records to me, with no restrictions, knowing that their judgment of events might not be mine.
My deepest intellectual and personal debts are to those friends and scholars who gave of their time and expertise to read part or all of the manuscript or to provide guidance and encouragement. I am especially grateful to Rosalyn Baxandall, Sue Cobble, Wayne Cooper, Caroline Coughlin, Susan Crane, Sue Gal, Judy Gerson, Linda Gonzalves, Gerald Grob, Mary Hartman, Ed Hartman, Evelyn Hu, Kathy Jones, Suzanne Lebsock, Phyllis Mack, John Marin, Art Miller, Lynn Miller, William O’Neill, David Oshinksy, Carol Petillo, Jim Reed, Sue Schrepfer, Judith Schwarz, Will Weinberg, Deborah White, and Virginia Yans. I remain grateful to Betty M. Unterberger whose inspired teaching and committed scholarship first led me to the study of history.
The entire staff at the Walter Reuther Library at Wayne State University, Detroit, and especially Dione Miles, served my needs with remarkable skill and kindness. My research and writing have been supported in part by the Rutgers University Research Council. The meticulous professionalism of the personnel at Temple University Press transformed the publishing process into a personal pleasure.
As always, the constant and loving support of John Leggett is precious beyond measure.