This bibliography refers to a large number of unpublished archival sources, as well as more generally available published documents. These archival sources have been identified with a three-letter abbreviation and a reference number. The three-letter abbreviation refers to the archive where the document may be found. The reference number is an identifier used by the archive itself to index and locate the document. It is analogous to a Library of Congress classification number on a printed book. The archival abbreviations are as follows:
|GPO||General Post Office Archives|
|General Post Office Headquarters|
|London School of Economics|
|MRC||Modern Records Centre|
|University of Warwick|
|Coventry, West Midlands|
|PRO||Public Record Office|
|Kew, Richmond, Surrey|
Aigner, Dennis, and Cain, Glen. 1977. “Statistical Theories of Discrimination in the Labor Market.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 30: 175–87.
Aldcroft, Derek. 1968. British Railways in Transition. New York: Macmillan.
Anderson, B. W. 1974., “Empirical Generalizations on Labor Turnover.” Pp. 33–59 in Richard Pegnetter, ed., Studies in Labor and Manpower. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.
Anderson, Michael. 1971. Family Structure in Nineteenth-Century Lancashire. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Antos, Joseph; Chandler, Mark; and Mellow, Wesley. 1980. “Sex Differences in Union Membership.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33:162–69.
Armknecht, Paul, and Early, John. 1972. “Quits in Manufacturing: A Study of Their Causes.” Monthly Labor Review 95: 31–37.
Aron, Cynthia. 1980. “To Barter Their Souls for Gold: Female Clerks in Federal Government Offices, 1862–1890.” Unpub. paper.
Averitt, Robert. 1968. Dual Economy: The Dynamics of American Industry Structure. New York: Norton.
Bagwell, Philip. 1963. Railwaymen: A History the of National Union of Railway men. London: Allen and Unwin.
Bain, George. 1970. The Growth of White Collar Unionism. Oxford: Clarenden.
Baker, Elizabeth Faulkner. 1964. Technology and Women’s Work. New York: Columbia University Press.
Bank Introduction. 1875. Introduction of Women to the Savings Bank. GPO, E3613/1875.
Barkin, Solomon. 1961. The Decline of the Labor Movement and What Can Be Done about It. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions.
Barron, R. D., and Norris, G. H. 1976. “Sexual Divisions and the Dual Labor Market.” Pp. 47–69 in Diana Leonard and Sheila Allen, eds., Dependence and Exploitation in Work and Marriage. New York: Longman.
Becker, Gary. 1957. Economics of Discrimination. University of Chicago: Chicago Press.
. 1964. Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Beechey, Veronica. 1978. “Women and Production: A Critical Analysis of Some Sociological Theories of Women’s Work.” Pp. 155–97 in Annette Kuhn and AnnMarie Wolpe, eds., Feminism and Materialism: Women and Modes of Production. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Begnoche Smith, Catherine. 1979. “The Influence of Internal Opportunity Structure and Sex of Worker on Turnover Patterns.” Administrative Sciences Quarterly 24: 362–81.
Benet, Mary Kathleen. 1972. Secretary: An Enquiry into the Female Ghetto. London: Sedgwick and Jackson.
Best, Doris. 1938. “Employed Wives Increasing.” Personnel Journal 17: 212–20.
Bevan Letter. 1914. Letter from Bevan to Walkden Concerning Women on Railways. MRC, 55B/3/WEH-1.
Blau, Francine. 1978. “Data on Women Workers: Past, Present and Future.” Pp. 29–62 in Ann Stromberg and Shirley Harkess, eds., Women Working: Theories and Facts in Perspective. Palo Alto, Calif.: Mayfield.
Blau, Francine, and Jusenius, Carol. 1976. “Economists’ Approach to Sex Segregation in the Labor Market: An Appraisal.” Pp. 181–200 in Martha Blaxall and Barbara Reagan, eds., Women and the Workplace: The Implications of Occupational Segregation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Blau, Francine, and Kahn, Lawrence. 1981. “Race and Sex Differences in Quits by Young Workers.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34: 563–77.
Bliss, William Dwight Porter, and Andrews, John. 1911. “History of Women in Trade Unions.” Vol. 10 of Report on Conditions of Women and Child Wage Earners in the United States. S. 645,61 Cong., 2nd Sess. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Printing Office. Rpt., New York: Arno, 1974.
Blum, Albert. 1971. “Office Employees.” Pp. 3–45 in Albert Blum et al., eds., White Collar Workers. New York: Random House.
Braverman, Harry. 1974. Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: Monthly Review.
Brenner, Johanna, and Ramas, Maria. 1984. “Rethinking Women’s Oppression.” New Left Review 144: 33–71.
Bridges, William. 1980. “Industry Marginality and Female Employment: A New Appraisal.” American Sociological Review 45: 58–75.
. 1982. “Sexual Segregation of Occupations: Theories of Labor Stratification in Industry.” American Journal of Sociology 88: 270–95.
Brower, F. Beatrice. 1937. Personnel Practices Governing Factory and Office Administration. New York: National Industrial Conference Board.
Burton, John, and Parker, John. 1969. “Interindustry Variations in Voluntary Labor Mobility.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 22: 199–216.
Caplow, Theodore. 1954. The Sociology of Work. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Center, Stella, and Herzberg, Max. 1929. Secretarial Procedure. New York: Ronald.
Chandler, Alfred. 1977. The Visible Hand: Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap.
Christmas Pressure. 1912. Correspondence File on the Employment of Women as Sorters during Christmas and New Year Pressure. GPO, E20693/1912.
Clerical Appointments Committee. 1924. Minutes of the Clerical Appointment Committee of the Great Western Railway. PRO, Rail 250/148–151.
Clerical Work Committee. 1916–28. Minutes of the Great Western Railway Clerical Work Committee. PRO, Rail 250/147.
Cohn, Samuel. 1981. “The Feminization of Clerical Labor in Great Britain: 1857–1937.” Unpub. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.
Cole, Robert. 1979. Work, Mobility, and Participation: A Comparative Study of American and Japanese Industry. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.
Colours. 1920. Great Western Railwaymen Called to the Colours. PRO, Rail 258/728.
Contract Talks. 1919–20. Transcripts of Negotiations: Negotiating Committee and Railway Clerks Association. MRC, MSS/55/AG/1/1–46.
Convention. 1946. Transcript of the Annual Convention of the Railway Clerks Association. MRC, MSS/55/1/BR/CON/49.
Cook, Alice, and Hayashi, Hiroko. 1980. Working Women in Japan: Discrimination, Resistance and Reform. Ithaca, N.Y.: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University.
Coyle, Grace. 1929. “Women in Clerical Occupations.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 143: 180–87.
Creighton, W. B. 1979. Working Women and the Law. London: Mansell.
Curtin, Edwards. 1970. White Collar Unionization. National Industrial Conference Board Study in Personnel Policy no. 220. New York: National Industrial Conference Board.
Cyert, Richard, and March, James. 1963. Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Darlington, George. 1942. Office Management. Rev. ed. New York: Ronald.
Davies, Margery. 1975. “Women’s Place Is at the Typewriter: The Feminization of the Clerical Labor Force.” Pp. 279–96 in Richard Edwards et al., eds., Labor Market Segmentation. Lexington, Mass.: Heath.
. 1982. Women’s Place Is at the Typewriter. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Dicksee, Lawrence, and Blain, Herbert. 1906. Office Organization and Management Including Secretarial Work. London: Pitman.
Dinerman, Beatrice. 1969. “Sex Discrimination in the Legal Profession.” American Bar Association Journal 55: 953.
Dublin, Thomas. 1979. Women at Work: Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1826–1860. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dubnoff, Steven. 1978. “Inter-occupational Shifts and Changes in the Quality of Work in the American Economy, 1900–70.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, San Francisco.
Edgeworth, F. Y. 1922. “Equal Pay to Men and Women for Equal Work.” Economic Journal 32: 431–57.
Engineering Clerks. 1904. Report of the Committee on the Organization of the Engineer in Chiefs Office. GPO, E18135/1904.
. 1919. Report of the Committee on Engineering Clerical Establishments. GPO, E2451/1919.
Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. 1981. Women in Law. New York: Basic Books.
Evans, Dorothy. 1934. Women and the Civil Service: A History of the Development and Employment of Women in the Civil Service and a Guide to the Present-Day Opportunities. London: Pitman.
Ex-servicemen’s Employment. 1921. Report on the Appointment and Employment of Ex-servicemen. GPO, M19938/1921.
Fawcett, Millicent. 1918. “Equal Pay for Equal Work.” Economic Journal 18: 1–6.
Feldberg, Roslyn. 1980. “Union Fever: Organizing among Clerical Workers, 1900–30.” Radical America 14: 53–67.
Female Pension. 1927. Papers on the Great Western Railway Female Clerks Superannuation Scheme. PRO, Rail 258/523.
Foner, Philip. 1979. Women and the American Labor Movement: From Colonial Times to the Eve of World War I. Glencoe, N.Y.: Free Press.
. 1980. Women and The American Labor Movement: From World War I to the Present. Glencoe, N.Y.: Free Press.
Freeman, Richard and Medoff, James. 1979. “New Estimates of Private Sector Unionism in the United States.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 32: 143–74.
Fry, Fred. 1973. “Behavioral Analysis of Economic Variables Affecting Turnover.” Journal of Behavioral Economics 2: 247–95.
Gallie, Duncan. 1978. In Search of the New Working Class: Automation and Social Integration within the Capitalist Enterprise. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gardiner, Glenn. 1929. Practical Office Supervision. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Garfinkle, Stuart. 1975. “Occupations of Women and Black Workers, 1962–74.” Monthly Labor Review 98: 25–35.
General Strike. 1926. Great Western Railway Documents on the General Strike. PRO, Rail 253/451.
Gladden, Edgar Norman. 1967. The Civil Services of the United Kingdom: 1855–1970. London: Cass.
Glenn, Evelyn Nakano, and Feldberg, Roslyn L. 1977. “Degraded and Deskilled: The Proletarianization of Clerical Work.” Social Problems 25: 52–64.
Goods Stations. 1922. Report of the Clerical Work Committee of the Great Western Railway on the Accounts Organization of the Goods Depots of Bristol, Paddington, Gloucester, Swansea, Reading, and Plymouth. PRO, Rail 250/783.
GPO Establishment Books. 1857–1937. The Establishment of the General Post Office with Returns of the Provincial, Dublin, Edinburgh, and Colonial Establishments. GPO, entire PO 59 series.
GPO Women. 1908. Recruitment of Women and Girls to the Post Office. GPO, E12171/1908.
Grand Classification. 1920. Grand Classification of Salaried Staff on Every British Railway Showing the Percentages in Each Class. MRC, Railway Clerk, Dec.
Great Britain Census. 1871. Census of England and Wales. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
. 1881. Census of England and Wales. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
. 1891. Census of England and Wales. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
. 1901. Census of England and Wales. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
. 1911. Census of England and Wales. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office.
. 1921. Census of England and Wales. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office.
. 1931. Census of England and Wales. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office.
Grimm, James. 1978. “Women in Female-Dominated Professions.” Pp. 293–315 in Ann Stromberg and Shirley Harkess, eds., Women Working: Theories and Facts in Perspective. Palo Alto, Calif.: Mayfield.
Gross, Edward. 1968. “Plus Ca Change . . . ? Sexual Structure of Occupations over Time.” Social Problems 16: 198–208.
GWR Petitions. 1914. Great Western Railway Memorials and Petitions of Clerical Staff. PRO, Rail 258/404.
GWR Staff Census. 1919. Great Western Railway Census of Staff. PRO, Rail 253/417.
. 1933. Great Western Railway Census of Staff. PRO, Rail 253/454.
GWR Women. 1906. Great Western Railway Correspondence on the Employment of Women. PRO, Rail 258/405.
Hall, C. E. 1902. Postal and Telegraph Clerks: Thirty Years of Agitation. Liverpool: Pearl. GPO.
Hanami, Tadashi. 1965. “Women Workers and Retirement after Marriage.” Japan Labor Bulletin 8: 37–56.
Hanham, H. J. 1960. “Political Patronage at the Treasury: 1870–1912.” Historical Review 3: 75–84.
Hartman, Heidi. 1976. “Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex.” Pp. 137–69 in Martha Blaxall and Barbara Reagan, eds., Women and the Workplace: The Implications of Occupational Segregation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Heritage, James. 1983. “Feminization and Unionization: A Case Study from Banking.” Pp. 131–48 in Eva Gamarnikow et al., eds. Gender; Class, and Work. London: Heinemann.
Hirsch, Barry. 1980. “Determinants of Unionization: An Analysis of Interarea Differences.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33: 147–61.
Hobhouse. 1906. Report from the Select Committee on Post Office Servants with the Proceedings of the Committee, Evidence and Index. House of Commons, Sessional Papers, vol. xii, pp. 11–1561.
Hoke, Donald. 1978. “Women and the Typewriter: A Case Study in Technological Innovation and Social Change.” Unpub. paper.
Holcombe, Lee. 1973. Victorian Ladies at Work. Hamden, Conn.: Archon.
Horowitz, Morris, and Herrnstadt, Irwin. 1966. “Changes in the Skill Requirements of Occupations in Selected Industries.” Pp. 223–87 in National Commission on Technology, Automation, and Economic Progress, The Employment Impact of Technological Change: Appendix, vol. 2 of Technology and the American Economy. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Humphreys, B. V. 1958. Clerical Unions in the Civil Service. Oxford: Black-well and Mott.
Hunt, Audrey. 1975. Management Attitudes and Practices towards Women at Work. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office and Office of Population Surveys and Censuses, Social Survey Division.
Hunt, Pauline. 1980. Gender and Class Consciousness. New York: Holmes and Meier.
International Labor Office. 1962. “Discrimination in Employment or Occupations on the Basis of Marital Status.” International Labor Review 85: 368–89.
Ireson, Carol. 1978. “Girls’ Socialization for Work.” Pp. 176–200 in Ann Stromberg and Shirley Harkess, eds., Women Working: Theories and Facts in Perspective. Palo Alto, Calif.: Mayfield.
Jenkinson, Lambert. 1914. Organization of Goods Departments. London: Railway Press.
Kalleberg, Arne; Wallace, Michael; and Althauser, Robert. 1981. “Economic Segmentation, Worker Power, and Income Inequality.” American Journal of Sociology 87: 651–83.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1977. Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books.
Kessler-Harris, Alice. 1979. “Where Are the Organized Women Workers?” Pp. 343–66 in Nancy Cott and Elizabeth Pleck, eds., A Heritage of Their Own. New York: Simon and Schuster.
. 1982. Out to Work: History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kingsford, Peter. 1970. Victorian Railwaymen: The Emergence and Growth of Railway Labour; 1830–70. London: Cass.
Klingender, Francis Donald. 1935. Condition of Clerical Labour in Great Britain. London: Lawrence.
Labour Report. 1930–33. Great Western Railway General Manager’s Report on Labor Matters. PRO, Rail 250/474-75.
Laws, Judith Long. 1976. “Work Aspirations of Women: False Leads and New Starts.” Pp. 33–50 in Martha Blaxall and Barbara Reagan, eds., Women and the Workplace: The Implications of Occupational Segregation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Leffingwell, William. 1917. Scientific Office Management. Chicago: Shaw.
. 1918. Making the Office Pay. Chicago: Shaw.
. 1925. Office Management: Principles and Practice. Chicago: Shaw.
. 1926. Office Appliance Manual. N.p.: National Association of Office Appliance Manufacturers.
Leffingwell, William, and Robinson, Edwin. 1950. Textbook of Office Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lockwood, David. 1958. The Blackcoated Worker: Study in Class Consciousness. London: Allen and Unwin.
London Branches. 1914. Correspondence Concerning the London Postal Service’s Proportion of Female to Male Force. GPO, E14324/1914.
Lyle, Jerolyn, and Ross, Jane. 1973. Women in Industry: Employment Patterns of Women in Corporate America. Lexington, Mass.: Heath.
Macdermot, Edward Terence. 1927. The History of the Great Western Railway. London: Ian Allan.
Madden, Janice Fanning. 1973. The Economics of Sex Discrimination. Lexington, Mass.: Heath.
. 1975. “Discrimination: A Manifestation of Male Market Power.” Pp. 146–74 in Cynthia Lloyd, ed., Sex, Discrimination, and the Division of Labor. New York: Columbia University Press.
Male Pension. 1925. Great Western Railway Male Clerical Superannuation Funds. PRO, Rail 258/395.
Martindale, Hilda. 1938. Women Servants of the State. London: Allen and Unwin.
McClelland, Frank. 1920. Office Training and Standards. Chicago: Shaw.
McCord, James. 1923. Textbook of Filing. New York: Appleton.
Medoff, James, and Abraham, Katherine. 1980. “Experience, Performance, and Earnings.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 95: 703–36.
. 1981. “Are Those Who Are Paid More Really More Productive? The Case of Experience.” Journal of Human Resources 16: 186–216.
Melman, Seymour. 1951. “Rise of Administrative Overhead in the Manufacturing Industries of the United States.” Oxford Economic Papers 3: 62–112.
Milkman, Ruth. 1980. “Organizing the Sexual Division of Labor: Historical Perspectives on Women’s Work and the American Labor Movement.” Socialist Review 10: 95–150.
. 1982. “Redefining Women’s Work: The Sexual Division of Labor in the Auto Industry during World War II.” Feminist Studies 8: 337–72.
Mills, C. Wright. 1951. White Collar: The American Middle Classes. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mincer, Jacob, and Polachek, Solomon. 1974. “Family Investment in Human Capital: Earnings of Women.” Journal of Political Economy 82: S76-S108.
Mitchell, Brian R. 1962. Abstract of British Historical Statistics. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Molyneux, Maxine. 1979. “Beyond the Domestic Labor Debate.” New Left Review 116: 1–27.
Montagna, Paul. 1975. Certified Public Accounting: Sociological View of a Profession in Change. New York: Scholars.
Moore, Kristin, and Sawhill, Isabel. 1978. “The Implications of Women’s Employment for Home and Family Life.” Pp. 201–25 in Ann Stromberg and Shirley Harkess, eds., Women Working: Theories and Facts in Perspective. Palo Alto, Calif.: Mayfield.
Moore, William, and Newman, Robert. 1975. “On Prospects for American Trade Union Growth: A Cross-sectional Analysis.” Review of Economics and Statistics 57: 435–45.
National Manpower Council. 1957. Womanpower. New York: Columbia University Press.
National Whitley Council. 1945–46. Report on Marriage Bars in the Civil Service. House of Commons Sessional Papers, vol. x, pp. 871–94.
Nichols, Frederick. 1934. The Personal Secretary: Differentiating Duties and Essential Personal Traits. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Nock, Oswald. 1963. The Great Western Railway in the Nineteenth Century. London: Ian Allen.
. 1964. The History of the Great Western Railway. London: Ian Allen.
Noland, William, and Bakke, E. Wight. 1949. Workers Wanted: A Study of Employers’ Hiring Policies, Preferences, and Practices in New Haven and Charlotte. New York: Arno.
O’Brien, Mary. 1981. Politics of Reproduction. London: Routlege and Kegan Paul.
O’Connor, James. 1973. Fiscal Crisis of the State. New York: Saint Martin’s.
Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincaide. 1970. The Female Labor Force in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood.
Orchard, B. G. 1871. Clerks of Liverpool. Liverpool: Arthur Mason.
Parnes, Herbert. 1954. Research on Labor Mobility: An Appraisal of Research Findings in the United States. New York: Social Science Research Council.
Parsley, Clifford. 1980. “Labor Union Effects on Wage Gains: A Survey of Recent Literature.” Journal of Economic Literature 18: 1–31.
Patterson, Michelle, and Engelberg, Laurie. 1978. “Women in Male-Dominated Professions.” Pp. 266–92 in Ann Stromberg and Shirley Harkess, eds., Women Working: Theories and Facts in Perspective. Palo Alto, Calif.: Mayfield.
Pencavel, John. 1970. The Quit Rate in American Manufacturing Industry. Princeton, N.J.: Industrial Relations Section, Department of Economics, Princeton University.
Phelps, Edmund S. 1972. “A Statistical Theory of Racism and Sexism.” American Economic Review 62: 659–61.
Phelps Brown, Henry. 1977. The Inequality of Pay. New York: Oxford University Press.
. 1983. The Origins of Trade Union Power. Oxford: Clarendon.
Piore, Michael, and Doeringer, Peter. 1971. Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis. Lexington, Mass.: Heath.
Pitman, Isaac. 1891. A History of Shorthand. London: Pitman.
Polachek, Solomon. 1979. “Occupational Segregation among Women: Theory, Evidence, and Prognosis.” Pp. 137–57 in Cynthia Lloyd et al., eds., Women in the Labor Market. New York: Columbia University Press.
Pollard, Sydney. 1965. Genesis of Modern Management. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Pollins, Harold. 1971. Britain’s Railways: An Industrial History. Newton Abbott, U.K.: David and Charles.
Postmaster Report. 1871. Seventeenth Report of the Postmaster General. House of Commons Sessional Papers, vol. xvi, pp. 793–881.
. 1890–91. Thirty-Seventh Report of the Postmaster General. House of Commons Sessional Papers, vol. xxvi, pp. 533–647.
. 1906. Fifty-Seventh Report of the Postmaster General. House of Commons Sessional Papers, vol. xxxix, pp. 595–696.
. 1930–31. Statement Showing Staffs of Government Departments. House of Commons Sessional Papers, vol. xxii, pp. 783–852.
Power, Marilyn. 1983. “From Home Production to Wage Labor: Women as a Reserve Army of Labor.” Review of Radical Political Economics 15:71–91.
Pratt, Edwin. 1921. British Railways and the Great War. 2 vols. London: Selwyn and Blount.
Price, James L. 1977. The Study of Turnover. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press.
Railway Clerk. 1907–37. Railway Clerk. Also known as Railway Service Journal. MRC, no identifying no.
Railway Report. 1860. Number and Description of Persons Employed on Each Railway in England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland. House of Commons, Sessional Papers, vol. lxi, pp. 153–64.
. 1884. Number and Description of Persons Employed on Each Railway in England’, Scotland and Ireland. House of Commons Sessional Papers, vol. lxx, pp, 307–19.
. 1913. Return Showing the Number of Staff Employed and the Amount of Salaries and Wages Paid Respectively by the Several Railway Companies of the United Kingdom in 1911. House of Commons Sessional Papers, vol. lviii, pp. 475–550.
Railway Return. 1907. Returns Relative to the Railways of the United Kingdom. House of Commons Sessional Papers, vol. lxxiv, pp. 517–666.
RCA Annual Reports. 1903–28. Annual Reports of the Railway Clerks Association. MRC, MSS55B/4/AR/7.
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Reich, Michael. 1981. Racial Inequality: A Political-Economic Analysis. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Richards, Peter Godfrey. 1963. Patronage in British Government. London: Allen and Unwin.
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Salaried Recruitment. 1912. Great Western Railway Appointment and Recruitment of Salaried Staff. PRO, Rail 258/400.
Savings Bank Print Shop. 1914. Introduction of Women to the Savings Bank Print Shop. GPO, E13753/1914.
Sawhill, Isabel. 1973. “Economics of Discrimination against Women: Some New Findings.” Journal of Human Resources 8: 383–96.
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Telegraph Report. 1876. “Report on the Organization of the Telegraph Service with Minutes and Evidence.” House of Commons Sessional Papers, vol. xi, pp. 1–368.
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U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. 1956. Older Workers’ Adjustment to Labor Market Practices. Bulletin no. R151. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
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